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吴亚衡:“H”到底该读什么音

吴亚衡:“H”到底该读什么音

  H  [e?t?]     美 [e?t?]

  n. 英语字母第八个字母 ;化学符号.

  名词复数: h's

  1How do you pronounce p - h - l - e - g - m ?

  你怎样读p-h-l-e-g-m”这个单词?

  2、Letter "O" stands for oxygen and "H" for hydrogen.

  字母“O”代表氧,“H”代表氢。

  扩展资料:

  发音方法

  /i:/ 舌抵下齿,双唇扁平作微笑状,发“一”之长音。 是字母ea、ee、ey、ie、或ei在单词中的发音,此音是长元音,一定注意把音发足。

  /?/ 舌抵下齿,双唇扁平分开,牙床近于全舌,发短促之“一”音。 是字母i或y在单词中的发音,发此音要短促而轻快。

  /?/ 双唇扁平,舌前微升,舌尖抵住下龈,牙床开,软腭升起,唇自然开放。 是字母a在闭音节或重读闭音节中的发音

  /e/ 舌近硬腭,舌尖顶下齿,牙床半开半合,作微笑状。 是字母e或ea在单词中的发音

  /з:/ 舌上抬,唇成自然状态,口半开半闭,发“厄”之长音。 是字母er、ir、or或ur在单词中的发音

  H

  英 [e?t?]     美 [e?t?]

  n. 英语字母表的第八个字母

  氢的化号.

  abbr. (铅笔心)硬的(=hard)

  -------------------------------------------

  H到底如何发音?BBC,传统英语发音的变化

  'Haitch' or 'aitch'? How do you pronounce 'H'?龙腾网

  By David Sillito BBC arts correspondent

  “嗨吃”还是“哎吃”?你怎么读“H”?

  大卫犀利托,BBC文字记者

  原网址在此,视频值得一看

  The pronunciation of common words has changed drastically over time. So, as the British Library begins a quest to record people's articulations, what do the differences in how we pronounce words say about us?

  一些常用词汇的发音,长久以来已经彻底改变了。大英图书馆开始了一次记录人们发音的调查,我们发音方式的不同都告诉了我们什么呢?

  Pedants, beware. The sound of says, ate, mischievous, harass, garage, scheduleand aitch is shifting.

  老古董们可要小心了。Says(说话), ate(吃饭), mischievous(淘气的、恶作剧), harass(骚扰), garage(车库), schedule(时间表) 和 aitch (就是字母H)的发音正在变化。

  Once upon a time, there were gales of laughter when Frank Spencer in Some Mothers Do 'Ave 'Em pronounced harass with the emphasis on the second syllable.

  想当年,佛兰克-斯宾塞在《Some Mothers Do 'Ave 'Em》(英国老电视剧,不知道中文名)里把“危害”读成“危还”的时候,大家都笑翻了。

  (原文是把harass的重音读在第二音节上,就是重音发在了ra)

  Now, according to the British Library, evidence suggests that for people under the age of 35, it is becoming the favoured pronunciation.

  而现在,据大英图书馆所言,证据表示年龄在35以下的人群竞更加倾向于读成“危还”了。

  Indeed the younger you are, the more likely you are to make says rhyme with lays rather than fez,ate rhyme with late rather than bet and to add a whole new syllable to mischievous, turning it in to miss-CHEEVY-us rather than MISS-chiv-us.

  事实上也是如此,越年轻的人越可能把“说话”读成“嗦话”,“躺下”读成“堂下”,“吃饭”读成“延期”的“期”而不是“吃货”的“吃”,甚至在“淘气”里面添加个伪音节,变得更像“通气”而不是“淘气”。

  (为简明易懂,涉及音韵的词都仿照中文改了,有兴趣细读的请参考原文)

  The British Library now wants to get a clearer idea of how spoken English is changing by recording as many people as possible reading the opening paragraph of the Mr Men book, Mr Tickle.

  大英图书馆想要搞清楚英语口语到底发生了怎样的变化。于是他们开始尽可能多的记录人们阅读识字读物《男人先生》的开篇部分,“痒痒先生”。

  (关于此读物

  The library's socio-linguist Jonnie Robinson picked the passage because it's well known, easy to read and will probably be read with as "normal a voice as possible". He does not want people to put on a "posh" speaking voice.

  图书馆的社会语言学家琼尼罗宾森选定这一段是因为大多数人都知道,而且十分容易读,所以他们可以“尽可能自然的”读出来。他不想听人们装模作样的来点高档发音。

  It's part of the library's forthcoming Evolving English exhibition and aims to show how pronunciation is not a matter of right and wrong but merely fashion.

  这是图书馆即将开展的《进化中的英语》展的一部分,目的是表明发音无所谓对错,而更多只是“时髦”问题。

  One exhibit is the BBC's guide to pronunciation from 1928. In it, it informs announcers thatpristine rhymes with wine, respite is pronounced as if there were no e, combat is cumbat, financewas finn-ance. Even then some of the suggestions were becoming archaic. Not only is housewifery no longer pronounced huzzifry, it is almost entirely obsolete as a word.

  展览的另一部分则是BBC于1928年发布的《发音指南》。里面提醒播音员,“原始的”跟“史前”的“史”是一个音,“延缓”里的“e”不发音,“战斗”发音是“沾-逗”,金融读作“竞-溶”。即便在当时,许多读音也显陈旧了。“家务活”不仅不再读作“家政”,而且听起来完全像是一个别的单词。

  Quite why some words change is unknown. Because, while many are importations from America -schedule turning into skedule is almost certainly a consequence of American films and television - the gradual shift of garage to sound like garridge is less easy to explain.

  许多词为何会变化还是无解的。因为尽管有些变音是美国影响的结果——比如“日程表”变成“时程表”,可以非常肯定是美国电影电视剧的作用——有些词汇如“车库”变成“测库”就不太好解释了。

  So too is there a mystery as to why certain pronunciations cause such strong feeling. Take the eighth letter of the alphabet, pronounce it haitch and then look for the slightly agonised look in some people's eyes.

  而某些特定发音为何会引发一些人如此强烈的情绪就更加是个谜题了。找到字母表中的第八个字母,读出“嗨吃”的发音,你会在很多人眼中找到相当的挣扎。

  One suggestion is that it touches on a long anxiety in English over the letter aitch. In the 19th Century, it was normal to pronounce hospital, hotel and herb without the h. Nowadays "aitch anxiety" has led to all of them acquiring a new sound, a beautifully articulated aitch at the beginning. America has perhaps hung on to its aitchless herb because it has less class anxiety attached to pronunciations.

  有一种说法是它触发了英语中长期以来对字母H的焦虑。在19世纪,不读出Hospital, Hotel, 和Herb里的H是很正常的。而现在,“H焦虑症”却迫使他们不得不添加一个新的音节——在开头放上一个美妙的H(哎吃)。美国人可能会比较习惯没有H的Herb,因为他们对于发音的格调不甚在意。

  However, the link between class, voice and status is not what it once was. Many of us are barely aware of how we say says or ate or what was once considered the right and proper way.

  总之,格调、发音和时态的联系早已不如往日。我们中的大多数人很少在意是“说话”还是“嗦话”、“吃饭”还是“期饭”,或者什么才被认为是正确的、合适的发音。

  It marks a decline in class anxiety in speech; attitudes to accents and pronunciations have become much more relaxed.

  这显示了口语上的格调焦虑症的衰退。人们对于口音和发音的态度更加随意。

  However, there are some pronunciations that do inspire ridicule and prejudice. If you rhyme cloth,wrath and off with north and wharf then you are in a small and declining tribe.

  虽然如此,某些发音依然会引发嘲笑和歧视。如果你把“衣服”说成“姨夫”,“愤怒”说成“费怒”,“离开”说成“尼开”,那你肯定是衰落中的那一小伙人。

  The shift from the "received pronunciation" of the 1930s and 40s is well documented but one example of how far it has fallen out of favour is that in the forthcoming BBC costume drama, South Riding, the Yorkshire accents of the 1930s pass without comment but the voices that would have been classic "RP" in the book have been updated.

  从上世纪三四十年代“标准发音”到现在的发音变化记录的很清楚。至于发音的重要性有多失宠,可以参考BBC即将开播的古装剧《南瑞丁》,那上世纪三十年代的约克郡口音虽曾是黑纸白字的“标准发音”,却并没获得任何好评。

  Audiences, it is argued, simply could not sit through a drama and care about a character if they sounded that "posh". They would be too busy laughing.

  而观众们则辩称,他们才不会坐在那看电视剧的同时去关注主人公们是否听起来很“高贵”。他们笑还笑不够呢。

  Aitch vs Haitch

  哎吃 Vs 嗨吃

  British English dictionaries give aytch as the standard pronunciation for the letter H. However, the pronunciation haytch is also attested as a legitimate variant. We also do not ask broadcasters who naturally say haytch to change their pronunciation but if a broadcaster contacted to ask us, we would tell them that aytch is regarded as the standard pronunciation in British English, people can feel very strongly about this and this pronunciation is less likely to attract audience complaints.

  大英英语词典给出aytch(哎吃)作为H的标准发音。然而,发音haytch也被认为是合理有效的变异。我们不会要求习惯于使用haytch(嗨吃)的播音员改变他们的发音。但如果他们向我们咨询,我们一般会告知aytch(哎吃)被认为是不列颠英语里的标准发音,而极端在意这个发音的听众不太可能会因为这个发音而投诉播音员。

  Haytch is a standard pronunciation in Irish English and is increasingly being used by native English-speaking people all across the country, irrespective of geographical provenance or social standing. Polls have shown that the uptake of haytch by younger native speakers is on the rise. Schoolchildren repeatedly being told not to drop Hs may cause them to hyper-correct and insert them where they don't exist.

  Haytch(嗨吃)是爱尔兰英语里的标准发音,并且无视社会层面和地理隔绝的影响,逐渐被全国的英语使用者所接受。民意调查显示越来越多的年轻英语使用者使用haytch(嗨吃)。学龄儿童被反复的告知不能忘记词语里“H”要发音,以至于他们可能矫枉过正,反而在不存在“H"的地方加上“H"。

  Jo Kim

  BBC Pronunciation Unit

  乔吉姆

  BBC语音部门

  Generational pide

  代差变异

  Language change happens through innovation - each generation talks slightly differently from the one before. So we hear a "pronunciation pide" between the young and the old with forms like aitch and haitch. Children's first exposure to English is usually through their parents, but once at school, the words and pronunciations they adopt are more influenced by other children they spend all day with. It's a human thing to adapt to the group in this way. We also gradually change borrowed words, like village and garage from French, to fit a more English pronunciation - with an -idge sound in the last syllable. Village is much further along in this ongoing process and therefore less controversial. Languages have always been alive and evolving to suit the users' communication needs, and it's not a bad thing to have change like this.

  语言一直是在革新中的,每一代人的谈吐都和上一代有微妙差别。所以我们会听到年青一代和老一代的“发音代沟”,如“哎吃”和“嗨吃”。儿童们初期接触英语一般是通过父母的,但一旦进入学校,他们的词汇和发音就会更显著的受到天天厮混的其他儿童影响。人类融入团体的天性如此。我们也会逐渐的变化舶来词,比如从法语中来的“村子”和“车库”,在末尾的音节里加上一点英语词尾。“村子”在这变化里已经走了很久了,所以争议也相对要少。语言是活的,出于使用者的交流需要,也是一直进化中的,有这种变化并不见得是件坏事。

  Jon Herring, British Library

  琼赫琳,大英图书馆

  Below is a selection of yourcomments

  以下是读者评论的节选

  I have to say that whilst Iacknowledge that language and therefore pronunciation is constantly evolving Ido get irritated when people "invent" a new syllable in a word, as inyour example of "mischievous". All too often, people simply don'tread the word as it is written, preferring to vocalise what they think they seerather than what is actually written down. It is almost as if some people arenot aware that the pronunciation of a word is based upon the letters which makeit up. Pure laziness I call it!

  不得不说我知道语言和发音都是不断进化中的,但每当有人在词汇里面生生“发明”出一个新的音节的时候——就如你展示的“淘气”变“通气”,我就气炸了。很多时候人们干脆就不按照单词的写法来读,而是更喜欢想怎么读就怎么读。就好像有些人完全不懂得词语的发音是基于构成的字母。我看这种人就是懒死的。

  Rod, Edinburgh

  路德,爱丁堡

  What a letter sounds like and what itis called don't have to match ('doubleyoo' as opposed to 'wuh' is a goodexample). So calling H aitch is not a problem. I was brought up to use aitchand that haitch was only used by ignorant people. A certain amount of snobberythere. If haitch is a local variant or otherwise accepted (I would use the OEDas my guide there) I am happy to change my view of it. But I will never, Ihope, change my view of sloppy or lazy pronunciation. Especially when it leadsyoung people to write 'could of' when they mean 'could have'. And whilelanguage does develop and evolve, some uses are simply incorrect and probablyalways will be. In speaking as much as writing, clarity is all.

  一个字母如何发音和字母自己的发音未必就要一样啊(“大不溜W”和“哇Wuh”的发音就不一样啊)。所以我看“H”发音成“哎吃”没啥问题。曾经有人告诉我应该用“哎吃”,因为“嗨吃”都是无知群众用的。这话听着就是猪鼻子插大蒜——装相啊。如果“嗨吃”是某种土话变声或不管怎么说是被人接受的(看牛津大辞典那上面就有啊),那我很乐意用它。但是我永远都不会——至少希望是——改变对懒式英语的看法。尤其是当它导致某些年轻人想要写出“本可以”却写成了“本已”的情况下。再说了,尽管语言是一直进步和进化的,有些用法总还是错的。不管是口语还是写作,首要的就是清晰。

  H翻译什么音

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